Would you know if your dog had hypothyroidism?
You might consider getting him tested if you saw some better-known symptoms. Things like sluggishness, weight gain or hair loss.
And those are the signs your conventional vet looks for too.
But it’s not always that obvious. So your vet may never include thyroid testing in your dog’s blood work.
And when your vet does test, she might not do the right tests. That’s a really important mistake most conventional vets make.
So I want to get into some detail about hypothyroidism … and some signs to watch for.
I’ll also explain proper testing. And I’ll tell you some effective natural ways to help your hypothyroid dog.
But first … what’s the thyroid and what does it do?
The thyroid is a little butterfly-shaped gland at the base of the neck. Its beside your dog’s windpipe, near the voice box.
The thyroid’s job is to regulate the metabolism of the body’s cellular functions.
The thyroid produces hormones like thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). These hormones affect energy levels, temperature, hair, skin, weight. But that’s not all … and I’ll get into more detail later.
The thyroid’s an important gland. But it doesn’t work alone.
The HPT Axis
The thyroid works in balance with two other glands … both in the brain:
- Pituitary gland
Together with the thyroid … these glands form the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis.
The HPT axis drives the set point of thyroid hormone production …
- The hypothalamus secretes a hormone called thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH).
- TRH stimulates the pituitary to release thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).
- TSH triggers the thyroid gland to secrete T4 and T3 (mainly T4, which converts to T3 in the liver and gut).
So … what happens when this process isn’t working right for your dog?
What Is Hypothyroidism?
Hypothyroidism is the most common endocrine or glandular disorder in dogs. It happens when the thyroid doesn’t produce enough T4. And that lowers your dog’s metabolic rate.
This can happen in some different ways.
Primary hypothyroidism is usually an autoimmune disease … autoimmune thyroiditis. It’s also called lymphocytic thyroiditis.
It happens when your dog’s body mistakes its own thyroid gland and hormones as foreign threats. Then the body produces antibodies to attack and destroy the thyroid gland cells.
These attacks cause secondary scarring of the tissue … and that leads to loss of thyroid function.
Jean Dodds DVM is well known as an expert on thyroid issues in pets. According to Dr Dodds, nearly 90% of hypothyroidism in dogs is autoimmune.
Remember the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT) I described above?
When the HPT isn’t working properly, the thyroid doesn’t get the signals it needs.
It can start with the hypothalamus. If it doesn’t produce enough thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) … the pituitary doesn’t get its “orders.”
And then the pituitary doesn’t produce enough thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). So it doesn’t tell the thyroid what to do.
This doesn’t mean the thyroid itself is damaged. Dr Marty Goldstein has a good analogy for this.
“If you buy a new toaster and the electrical plug got cut off, you wouldn’t be able to toast your bread, even though there’s nothing wrong with the toaster itself.”
In the same way, your dog’s thyroid can be normal … but doesn’t get the messages it needs to work properly.
That’s secondary hypothyroidism.
What About Hyperthyroidism?
The opposite of hypothyroidism is hyperthyroidism. It’s very rare in dogs. (It’s much more common in cats though.)
Hyperthyroidism means the body produces too much T4. This increases the metabolism … sending the body into overdrive. It can cause weight loss, anxiety, diarrhea and more.
Again, it’s very rare in dogs. And when it does happen, it’s often due to thyroid cancer. Or it may happen if your dog gets too much medication for hypothyroidism.
There’s one other theory about hyperthyroidism in dogs … and that’s raw meat diets.
A small study published in 2012 found 12 dogs with clinical signs of hyperthyroidism. All the dogs were raw-fed and ate fresh or dried gullets or necks with trachea. After changing the diets of some of the dogs … their thyroid functions returned to normal.
The researchers concluded there was thyroid gland tissue in the food. And that caused dietary hyperthyroidism.
But don’t panic.
The researchers also observed that wild dogs like wolves or coyotes don’t have this problem. They referenced an 1898 study (yes, that old!). It found that …
- Feeding absolutely fresh thyroid did not lead to any signs in various animals but …
- When keeping the tissue on ice for a minimum of 24 hours, toxicity did develop.
So the researchers concluded … thyrotoxicosis in the meats could have been due to over-chilling. This could have happened at home or earlier, at the abattoir.
(I actually did my own little N=1 experiment. I tried feeding my hypothyroid dog tons of turkey necks and beef gullets for a few months. The result … nothing changed!)
But let’s get back to why you’re here … hypothyroidism in dogs.
Dog Breeds Prone To Hypothyroidism
Some dogs may have a genetic link to hypothyroidism.
Breeds prone to hypothyroidism are …
- Golden Retriever
- Doberman Pinscher
- Irish Setter
- Miniature Schnauzer
- Cocker Spaniel
- Airedale Terrier
If you have one of these breeds, you’ll want to watch your dog for signs that he is developing the disease.
But breed predisposition isn’t the only cause. There can be other causes too.
Causes Of Hypothyroidism In Dogs
What does conventional medicine say? Well, they don’t really explain it very well.
Here’s what the Merck Veterinary Manual says.
The two most common causes of primary hypothyroidism in dogs are:
- Lymphocytic thyroiditis. (This means it’s immune-mediated disease.)
- Idiopathic atrophy of the thyroid gland. (Idiopathic means they don’t know what causes it.)
Merck says secondary hypothyroidism is usually due to “… destruction of pituitary thyrotrophs by an expanding, space-occupying tumor.”
This means a large tumor that takes space away from the pituitary. This can cause malfunction and stop it from producing hormones.
But these explanations don’t actually get to the bottom of the problem. They don’t say what caused these things to happen!
More holistically-minded vets go a little deeper.
What’s Behind Hypothyroidism?
Let’s look at what a few vets have to say …
Drugs, Vaccines And Food
Dr Marty Goldstein blames these pharmaceutical products (in addition to genetics):
- Chemical flea, tick and heartworm products
- Vaccines – remnants of tissue cultures and other chemicals in vaccines
Vaccines in particular can trigger many kinds of autoimmune disease. Heavy metals and other ingredients in vaccines are especially dangerous.
When you inject something into the body, you bypass skin and mucous membranes that normally form a barrier against toxins.
Dr Richard Pitcairn feels several factors cause immune disorders like hypothyroidism:
“All of these things have greatly weakened the immune system of animals over several generations.”
Herbicides And Pesticides
Herbicides and pesticides can be another big problem, says Dr Patricia Jordan. Pesticides and herbicides contaminate our food, water and air.
These toxins disrupt thyroid function. They interfere with thyroid hormone gene expression … and inhibit the thyroid’s uptake of iodine.
Dr Jean Dodds warns that choke, prong or chain collars can do permanent damage to the thyroid. Even a hard braided leather collar can cause a problem.
Trauma and sudden pressure from a dog who pulls or lunges on leash can damage the thyroid … as well as the neck and trachea.
It’s much safer to use a harness to walk your dog. Make sure the front of your dog’s harness sits across the chest, not his neck.
Dr Tamara Hebbler (“Doctor AMara”) believes many environmental toxins cause hypothyroidism:
- Too much estrogen in the body (often caused by toxins like plastics and pesticides)
- Electromagnetic frequencies (EMFs)
- Heavy metal toxicity
- Fluoride in drinking water – that ends up in packaged foods as well
Just about any chemical in your dog’s environment can cause endocrine disorders.
Here are a few not mentioned by the vets above … but there’s plenty of research to support their impact on the thyroid.
- BPA (bisphenol-A) from plastics (water bottles, food containers, canned food liners).
- Phthalates – bottled waters, food storage, food wraps, cosmetics … and many dog toys!
- PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) – still in the environment even though banned in the 1970s.
- PBDEs – flame retardants.
- Triclosan – antibacterial agent in soaps and creams.
- Phenols – in detergents, pesticides and plastics.
- Perchlorate* – in soil and groundwater. Also found in milk, produce, bottled water, wine and beer.
*In the 50s, perchlorate was used to treat hyperthyroid cases. So that tells you why it might cause hypothyroidism!
So now that I’ve scared you with all the things that can cause hypothyroidism (some of them hard to avoid) …
… what signs should you watch out for in your dog?
Signs Of Hypothyroidism In Dogs
Dr Tamara Hebbler estimates that 80-90% of urban middle-aged dogs have some hypothyroidism.
And according to Dr Jean Dodds …
… classic hypothyroid symptoms don’t show up until 70% of the thyroid is already damaged.
So it’s important to recognize the early symptoms of thyroid disease in your dog.
First, these are the classic symptoms you may know about:
- Weight gain
- Hair thinning or loss
- Bad skin
- Cold intolerance
But what are some early symptoms that might suggest hypothyroidism?
Early Symptoms Of Hypothyroidism In Dogs
Some of these are not so obvious …
A key early symptom of thyroid disease is a behavior issue … especially a new one.
- Fear or phobias
Don’t assume it’s “just a behavior issue.” Get your dog’s thyroid tested.
A change in your dog’s appearance could also mean thyroid problems. Weight gain (especially without a diet change) is one possibility.
But your dog’s face could even look different!
Dr Dodds recommends taking regular photos of your dog so you can see the changes. You may see your dog’s brow look furrowed. Or there could be a cleft above the eyes.
Other Signs Of Hypothyroidism In Dogs
- Slow healing wounds
- Poor immune function
- Dry or dull coat
- Coat color changes
- Seizures or tremors
Hypothyroidism can be an underlying element in many other chronic health issues. Consider the thyroid if your dog has …
- Skin issues
- Neurological issues
- Ear problems
- Joint conditions
- Frequent injuries
- Digestive issues like acid refux or regurgitation
- Dry cough
- Leaky gut syndrome
- Acquired (not hereditary) laryngeal paralysis
- Eye problems – cataracts, cherry eye, corneal ulcers
- Premature aging changes – vision or hearing loss
- Lipomas, skin tags
- Heart issues
- Blood sugar issues
- REM Behavior Disorder
- Other autoimmune endocrine disorders like Addison’s, diabetes, IBS
- Other autoimmune non-endocrine problems, like autoimmune hemolytic anemia
If your dog has one of these issues, thyroid testing is a good idea.
Don’t let your vet talk you out of it.
Your conventional vet may resist testing if your dog doesn’t have classic symptoms. I had that experience.
I adopted a dog who was terrified of everything. A leaf blowing down the street could send him into a panic.
A trainer advised me to test his thyroid. But my vet (at the time conventional) looked at my slender, active dog with a beautiful thick coat.
She said, “oh no, he’s not hypothyroid.” I said “humor me” … and insisted on the test.
A few days later, she called me, saying she’d fallen off her chair in shock. He was severely hypothyroid.
(And we corrected his condition with natural therapies. More on that later. It was the second time the vet fell off her chair.)
Remember what I said at the beginning? That many vets make a big mistake when they test for thyroid disease? Let’s talk about that.
If you ask a conventional vet to test your dog’s thyroid … she’ll likely just get a T4 test.
But that’s not enough.
T4 Alone Is Useless
All holistic vets will tell you the T4 test alone is useless. T4 can be affected by many other factors.
Even the Merck Veterinary Manual says … hypothyroidism is “one of the most over diagnosed diseases in dogs.”
And that’s probably because vets are diagnosing it based on T4 alone. Countless dogs are diagnosed … and medicated … based on T4 alone.
She says T4 is inadequate because …
- It over diagnoses hypothyroidism – especially with non-thyroidal illness or use of certain drugs
- It doesn’t detect autoimmune thyroiditis
Dr Dodds recommends a full thyroid panel including these tests.
- Total T4 – Total amount of T4 (thyroxine) hormone that circulates in the blood. More than 99% of T4 hormone is “bound,” meaning it attaches to proteins in the blood and never reaches the tissues.
- Free T4 – Free T4 level tells the pituitary gland whether it needs to produce more TSH.
- Total T3 – both the bound and unbound forms of T3 circulating in the blood. Serum T3 alone is not accurate as it’s often influenced by secondary non-thyroidal illness.
- Free T3 – free T3 level tells the pituitary gland whether it needs to produce more TSH.
- Canine Thyroglobulin Autoantibody (TgAA) – dogs with autoimmune thyroiditis will have elevated TgAA.
Hemopet has added a new measurement as well. This is the T4:Free T4 ratio. It helps distinguish between a thyroid disorder and another underlying disease.
Note: If your vet doesn’t want to do the testing, ask her to do the blood draw. You can send it yourself to Hemopet. There’s an online test form on the website. A full Thyroid Profile 5 is currently $110.
So … your dog’s tests show he’s hypothyroid. What do you do now?
Conventional Thyroid Drugs
Your conventional vet will want to prescribe a synthetic thyroid hormone called levothyroxine.
In fact, the FDA says “there is no cure for hypothyroidism.” They say this drug is your only option.
But this isn’t true! Later I’ll tell you how my dog’s hypothyroidism was reversed naturally.
But first, what are the side effects of synthetic thyroid drugs?
Levothyroxine Side Effects
Here are some of the reported side effects of the drug.
- Not eating
- Skin problems – red, inflamed skin
- Decreased activity level
- Increased drinking and urination
- Increased activity level
And your dog could develop thyrotoxicosis. This can happen with too high a dose … or if your dog has another underlying illness. So your vet will need to monitor your dog’s reaction to dosing.
Signs of thyrotoxicosis include …
- Rapid pulse
- Increased drinking and peeing
- Weight loss (despite increased appetite
Tell your vet if your dog shows these side effects.
Don’t use this drug if your dog has Addison’s disease … or in breeding, pregnant or nursing dogs.
There are many natural therapies you can try before resorting to synthetic hormones. I’ll tell you about some of them (including what worked for my dog).
7 Natural Solutions For Hypothyroidism In Dogs
I don’t recommend you try these therapies at home by yourself. You’ll need to work with your holistic vet, herbalist or homeopath for professional guidance with this chronic condition.
Many herbs play an important role in supporting thyroid and immune function. Here are a few possibilities.
Use of these herbs must be individualized for your dog. Consult your herbalist or a holistic vet experienced in herbs.
Many homeopathic remedies can support your hypothyroid dog.
But again … you’ll need to work with an expert practitioner. An experienced homeopath will analyze your dog’s individual symptom and health picture.
Homeopathic veterinarian Dr Jeff Feinman says:
“While the homeopathic approach is to minimize and eventually cure the autoimmune thyroiditis, whatever is causing the negative thyroid loop and destruction of the thyroid must first be stopped.
“If the thyroid is destroyed and the body cannot produce enough hormones to heal itself, then homeopathy can’t stimulate the body to cure itself.”
Dr Feinman estimates there are more than 60 homeopathic medicines that are associated with hypothyroidism treatment.
“It really is individual,” says Feinman. “So one medicine that we treat one animal with may have nothing to do with what the other one has.”
3. Nutraceuticals And Glandulars
Your holistic vet may prescribe nutraceutical or glandular supplements. Some she may consider are iodine, selenium or zinc. These nutrients all support thyroid health.
- Selenium and zinc help convert T4 to T3.
- Iodine is important for proper thyroid function.
But again, talk to your vet about your dog’s individual needs. Not every dog needs all these nutrients!
Here are some commonly used supplements you can ask your vet about. Many holistic vets like the products from these companies.
Standard Process (only sold through practitioners)
The supplements below contain natural dessicated bovine or porcine thyroid. These can boost your dog’s thyroid health.
- Ancestral Supplements Grass-Fed Natural Dessicated Beef Thyroid (also contains liver)
- Nutri-Meds Bovine Thyroid Health
- Nature-Throid (prescription)
- Armour Thyroid (prescription)
A Real-Life Example
As an example of nutraceutical/glandular therapy, I want to tell you what worked for my dog, Tarka.
Dr Dodds called me from Hemopet with his results. She told me he needed to go on synthetic medication immediately – and that’s we’d re-test in a few weeks.
I said I would prefer to try natural treatments. Dr Dodds bluntly told me “it won’t work.” But I wanted to do some research first.
What I found was the therapy offered by Smith Ridge Veterinary Center. (The clinic was founded by Dr Marty Goldstein. He’s retired from clinical practice and sold the clinic. But Smith Ridge is continuing many of the earlier treatment traditions.)
First … we did a Metabolic Nutritional Analysis blood test. Smith Ridge then prescribed a tailored nutraceutical supplement. This was based specifically on Tarka’s results.
Tarka took this supplement, along with a homeopathic blend they sent, for several months. When we re-tested a few months later, his results were normal … and continued to be normal with later tests.
Full Disclosure: That was nearly 10 years ago. Tarka is now 12 years old … and has just started to show some signs that his condition has returned (some hair loss on his tail). He’s getting homeopathic and supplement support. I still plan to avoid conventional drugs for him.
4. Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine (TCVM)
Like homeopathy, Traditional Chinese Medicine takes a “whole patient” approach to thyroid disease.
Your TCVM vet will identify any imbalances or deficiencies in your dog. Treatment will usually involve a combination of food energetics, Chinese herbs, and acupuncture.
So you’ll need to find a TCVM practitioner to work with on an individualized approach for your dog.
Look for a TCVM vet at The Chi Institute’s directory.
I left this till (almost) last. But diet is probably the most important aspect of your dog’s health … no matter what condition you’re dealing with.
Always feed your dog a fresh, whole food, preferably raw diet. And if your dog is hypothyroid, there are many foods you can add to support his thyroid health.
Here are a few examples:
Vegetables should be pureed or mulched, or lightly steamed for digestibility.
A note about cruciferous veggies …
Some believe that dogs (and people) with thyroid problems should avoid cruciferous veggies … like kale, cauliflower and broccoli. This is because they are “goitrogenic.” That means they can cause the thyroid to enlarge.
Dr Jean Dodds has commented on this issue. She says …
“Erring on the side of caution is prudent but, in this instance, the antioxidant and Vitamin K benefits definitely outweigh the risks. The goitrogenic properties in these green leafy vegetables are minute and should not cause concern if fed in moderation.”
Other Helpful Foods
Dr Hebbler suggests small amounts of the foods below may help prevent early hypothyroid symptoms:
Because of chemicals in the water supply … always make sure you give your dog fresh spring or filtered water.
(I know, this can be hard to control. My dogs love to drink out of every filthy puddle or pond they find. But at least at home, they get clean water.)
7. Other Support For Hypothyroidism
And here are a couple of other changes that can support your dog’s overall health.
Remember how many chemicals can affect your dog’s thyroid? So to help your dog’s thyroid and overall health … consider a regular detox.
This will support all of your dog’s organs … including the thyroid.
Check out Dr Dee Blanco’s advice on detoxing your dog.
Managing EMF Exposure
Most holistic vets agree that electromagnetic frequencies contribute to many chronic diseases.
Reduce your dog’s EMF exposure by:
- Using a wired internet source instead of Wi-Fi
- Turning off Wi-Fi at night and when you leave the house
- Turning off your cellphone at night, keep it outside the bedroom
- Keeping phones in airplane mode when not in use
- Keeping cellphones at least 3 feet away from your dog at all times
- Removing cordless phones from your home
- Not letting your dog sit too close when you’re on your computer
Plenty of good exercise supports your dog’s overall health. If you live in a city, try to get out into nature with your dog sometimes. Even just a weekend outing will be therapeutic for both of you!
So … I hope this information helps you find natural solutions for your dog’s hypothyroidism.
There are lots of things you can do to avoid resorting to pharmaceuticals!