TABLE I FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE

Sex (2:1 females)

Genetic or familial history

  • increasing frequency

Pregnancy

  • stunted fetal growth
  • congenital malformations

Stress

  • environmental
  • emotional
  • physiological

Hormonal Irregularities

  • polyglandular autoimmunity (endocrinopathy)
  • pituitary-thyroid axis dysfunction reproductive failure
  • abnormal heat cycles pyometra
  • false pregnancy
  • hypogonadism oliogospermia aspermia anestrus

Nutritional Influences

  • deficiency or imbalances trace minerals
  • nutrients vitamins
  • Chemical preservatives
  • toxins in feeds
  • chemical or drug residues spoiled feeds

Adverse Drug Reactions

  • trimethoprim-sulfas
  • ormetoprim sulfa
  • nitrofurans butazolidin
  • phenobarbital
  • primidone
  • diethylcarbamazine-oxybendazole
  • ivermectin
  • milbemycin oxime

Viral Infection

  • parvovirus
  • retroviruses
  • cytomegalovirus
  • measles and distemper viruses
  • hepatitis viruses

Frequent or Recent Use of MLV Vaccines

  • parvovirus
  • distemper
  • hepatitis
  • Lyme (vaccines alone or in combination)
  • bordetella
  • rabies

Underlying or Concomitant Disease

  • lymphoma or leukemia (retrovirus infections)
  • bone marrow failure (low red and white cells, platelets)
  • immune dysregulation
  • humoral – cellular (immunodeficiency )
  • chronic infections bacterial
  • viral parasitic fungal

Other Autoimmune Disorders

  • Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
  • Addison’s disease
  • rheumatoid arthritis
  • lupus crythematosus
  • idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
  • hemolytic anemia
  • chronic active hepatitis
  • diabetes mellitus
  • hypogonadism
  • myasthenia gravis
  • hypoparathyroidism

Seizures and Other Neurologic Manifestations

Uveitis and Other Immunologic  Eye Diseases